Transformation of Education in India – Vedic Tradition, Women’s Education
The education system in India goes a long way for development – from Vedic days to around 1700 BCE, to today’s computer age and e-learning. Overall, Indian tradition has always given special importance to education.
The Vedic Tradition
The Vedas were the main repositories of knowledge and by oral tradition, teaching was mainly carried out from generation to generation in the Gurukul system (student in residence with teacher). In later times, other texts, including Scripture and poetry, were written specifically on palm leaves for preservation and were written with a sharp writing instrument. The Gurukul system was the main migration of education and was mainly taken advantage of by the upper castes – Brahmins and Rajghars.
Moghul and British Influence
The Mogul period brought Islamic influence into education, madrasas. The colonial system that followed with the British Raj saw the next major change: the widespread use of English as a language of learning and instruction, and the introduction of the Western system of teaching science, engineering, medicine, law, and other subjects. During the British Raj, Christian missionary schools and colleges began to dot the education landscape.
Government schools and missionary schools that reached the city and rural areas were the backbone of primary and secondary education, but in recent decades a mushroom in private schools, especially in urban areas, has changed the landscape a lot. After independence, the Government of India established major tertiary institutions such as IITs for engineering education, IIMs for management education, and similar institutions for medical and law education.
Private institutions have also offered a large number of educational facilities in the last few decades. An unfortunate trend with the development of higher education is the emphasis on exams and grade-oriented education, fueled by the proliferation of competitive entrance exams for science, engineering, medicine, law, etc. to compete and prepare students. This exam is considered as the physical percentage of today’s college graduates not meeting the needs of the industry.
The Rural-Urban and Rich-Poor Divide
One notable feature is the significant difference between the educational facilities available in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Also with the rising cost of education and private education, the rich are able to get better educational facilities, the poor can afford what they can afford. Given that, there are increasing opportunities for bright rural students to participate in top educational institutions through the route of competitive competitive examination, merit seat and scholarship again.
There is another interesting trend in recent years. With great enthusiasm and support from parents, it has become common for upper class and rich students to go abroad to attend top universities like Stanford, MIT, Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford etc.
An underlying fact with education in India is how much parents are willing to spend on their children’s education. It is not uncommon for parents to see the education of their son or daughter not only through college, but also through all postgraduate studies.
Women’s education has come a long way, the tradition of low level education for women with their families for centuries is linked to the current situation in urban areas where women study on equal opportunity, including engineering, medicine, law etc. Are included. Unlike the scenario in the current developed western countries, there is no problem to motivate women to study mathematics, science, engineering and medicine.
Increasing use of English
Today’s education landscape in India includes the ever-increasing use of English at all levels in schools and in the public sector, opening the world to global opportunities for graduates in all fields. As a scorer with the English language, India has a strong affinity for information technology (IT) and information technology enabled service sectors, which are particularly well developed and bring great benefits and employment to our country.
A Move towards e-Learning
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been making major impact in the direction of e-learning in recent years. India has developed a strong space program over 50 years, mostly by indigenous efforts (necessary, as state-of-the-art technology was denied by long-developed countries, especially the US). India has established dedicated satellite systems for education and tele-medicine distribution, which can reach even the most remote rural population. From the 1980s onwards, when computer-based learning began to be distributed through CD-ROM, e-learning boomed, paving the way for many private players and government agencies, which today e-learning Manufactures and distributes systems.